Prepare the dough. Crumble the yeast into a bowl and add the milk. Mix until the yeast is dissolved.
Add the syrup, cinnamon, cardamom and salt and mix. Next add the flour, a little at a time. Work the dough for about 10 minutes. Cover the dough with a towel and leave to rise for two hours.
Meanwhile, make the apple pieces. Wash, peel, core and cube the apples. Add the brown sugar, vanilla sugar and cinnamon and mix so that these are evenly spread across the apple pieces. Leave to one side.
Knead the dough on a floured pastry board and shape into a roll. Chop the roll into about 50 pieces. Flatten out each piece of dough by hand and add an apple piece in the middle. Fold in the remaining dough and roll into a ball.
Heat cooking oil in a heavy-bottomed pan to about 170-180 °C. Use a thermometer so you know when the oil is hot enough. Add 3-4 donuts to the oil and deep-fry for about 3 minutes. Turn the donuts around in the oil so that they cook evenly.
Mix sugar and cinnamon on a plate. Scoop up the doughnuts using a perforated ladle and roll them in the sugar and cinnamon mixture. Allow to cool.
Serve with ice-cream.
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